One of the nicest things about my job is the opportunity to supervise and support doctoral students, and to then publish with them. Belatedly (as this has been available for some time), here is a paper arising from Freda Browne’s doctorate. Freda works at University College Dublin, and in her thesis used a realist approach to understand how knowledge and skill are transferred from the education context to clinical practice.
This paper, appearing in the journal Nurse Education Today, is a fine piece of work and a good example of theory-informed evaluation. Here’s the abstract:
Background: Continuing professional education (CPE) for nurses is deemed an essential component to develop, maintain and update professional skills. However, there is little empirical evidence of its effectiveness or factors which may influence its application into practice.
Objective: This paper explores a continuing professional education programme on the safe administration of medication and how new knowledge and skills are transferred into clinical practice.
Design: Realist evaluation provided the framework for this study. Realist evaluation stresses the need to evaluate programmes within “context,” and to ask what “mechanisms” are acting to produce which “outcomes.” This realist evaluation had four distinct stages. Firstly, theories were built as conjectured CMO configurations (Stage 1 and 2), then these cCMO were tested (Stage 3) and they were then refined (Stage 4).
Methods: Data was collected through document analysis and interviews (9) to build and refine CMOs. The conjectured CMOs were tested by clinical observation, interview (7), analysis of further documents and analysis of data from reported critical incidents and nursing care metric measurements.
Results: This study has shown the significant role of the ward manager in the application of new learning from the education programme to practice. Local leadership was found to enable a patient safety culture and the adoption of a quality improvement approach. The multi-disciplinary team at both organisation and local level was also found to be a significant context for the application of the education programme into practice. Reasoning skills and receptivity to change were identified to be key mechanisms which were enabled within the described contexts.
Conclusion: The findings from this study should inform policy and practice on the factors required to ensure learning from CPE is applied in practice. The realist evaluation framework should be applied when evaluating CPE programmes as the rationale for such programmes is to maintain and improve patient care.